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What is COVID-19
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause respiratory infections. These can range from the common cold to more serious diseases.
COVID-19 is a disease caused by a new form of coronavirus. It was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan City in China.
Symptoms of COVID-19 can range from mild illness to pneumonia. Some people will recover easily, and others may get very sick very quickly. People with coronavirus may experience symptoms such as:
- respiratory symptoms
- sore throat
- shortness of breath
Other symptoms can include runny nose, headache, muscle or joint pains, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, loss of sense of smell, altered sense of taste, loss of appetite and fatigue.
To stop the spread of COVID-19 people with even mild symptoms of respiratory infection are encouraged to get tested.
If you do not have any symptoms, you should still protect yourself and others.
How it spreads
The virus can spread from person to person through:
- close contact with an infectious person (including in the 48 hours before they had symptoms)
- contact with droplets from an infected person’s cough or sneeze
- touching objects or surfaces (like doorknobs or tables) that have droplets from an infected person, and then touching your mouth or face
COVID-19 is a new disease, so there is no existing immunity in our community. This means that COVID-19 could spread widely and quickly.
See how to protect yourself and others.
Who is most at risk
In Australia, the people most at risk of getting the virus are:
- travellers who have recently been overseas
- those who have been in close contact with someone who has been diagnosed with COVID-19
- people in correctional and detention facilities
- people in group residential settings
People who are, or are more likely to be, at higher risk of serious illness if they get the virus are:
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 50 years and older with one or more chronic medical conditions
- people 65 years and older with chronic medical conditions
- people 70 years and older
- people with chronic conditions or compromised immune systems
- people in aged care facilities
- people with a disability
At this stage the risk to children and babies, and the role children play in the transmission of COVID-19, is not clear. However, there has so far been a low rate of confirmed COVID-19 cases among children, relative to the broader population.
There is limited evidence at this time regarding the risk in pregnant women.
See our advice for people at risk.
Protect yourself and others
Everyone must do the following things to slow the spread of COVID-19 and protect those who are most at risk.
If you have travelled recently, see our advice for travellers.
How to seek medical attention
If you are sick and think you have symptoms of COVID-19, seek medical advice. If you want to talk to someone about your symptoms, call the National Coronavirus Helpline for advice.
To seek medical help from a doctor or hospital, call ahead of time to book an appointment.
You will be asked to take precautions when you attend for treatment. Follow the instructions you are given.
If you have a mask, wear it to protect others. Stay at least 1.5 metres away from other people. Cover your coughs or sneezes with your elbow.
Tell the doctor about:
- your symptoms
- any travel history
- any recent contact you have had with someone who has COVID-19
GP respiratory clinics
Find out below if there is a GP respiratory clinic near you and how to register for an appointment:
- Australian Capital Territory
- New South Wales
- Northern Territory
- South Australia
- Western Australia
The criteria for having a test for COVID-19 are updated regularly as new evidence becomes available. Testing diagnoses patients with COVID-19 and also helps health authorities monitor and track the spread of COVID-19.
People with mild symptoms can still spread the virus. To help stop the resurgence and spread of COVID-19, anyone with symptoms of an acute respiratory infection should get tested.
The symptoms include:
- respiratory symptoms
- sore throat
- shortness of breath
If you have one or more of these symptoms, even mildly, it is important you get tested as soon as possible. Early diagnosis means you can take steps to avoid spreading the virus to someone else.
If you have other symptoms that may occur with COVID-19 you should seek advice from your doctor about whether you should get tested.
As the situation changes, states and territories may adjust their testing criteria based on local needs. For latest information check your state or territory health website.
Testing is even more important if you have symptoms and any of the following apply to you:
- you have returned from overseas in the past 14 days
- you travelled on a cruise ship (either passenger or crew) in the 14 days before developing symptoms
- you have been in close contact with someone diagnosed with COVID-19 in the past 14 days
- you are a health care, aged care or residential care worker or staff member with direct patient contact
- you have lived in or travelled through an area where there is a higher risk of community transmission, as defined by the local public health unit
People in high-risk settings will be regularly monitored to ensure symptoms are identified early. Rapid response plans will be activated if someone in those settings develops a fever or respiratory symptoms. People who have recovered from COVID-19 need to be tested before they can go into high risk settings.
High-risk settings include:
- aged and residential care facilities
- detention centres or correctional facilities
- boarding schools
- military group residences and other closed settings, such as Navy ships or live-in accommodation
- rural and remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
Where to get tested
- contact your doctor and they will arrange the test
- attend a respiratory or fever clinic
Respiratory or fever clinics are dedicated health centres around the country focusing on testing people with acute respiratory infection symptoms
If your symptoms are serious, you should seek urgent medical attention. If possible, call ahead so the medical facility can prepare.
If it is a medical emergency, please call 000.
The Department of Health regularly reviews these criteria.
It may take a day or two for your test results to come back.
If you have serious symptoms you will be kept in hospital and isolated from other patients to prevent the virus spreading.
If your doctor says you are well enough to go home while you wait for your test results, you should:
There is no treatment for COVID-19. Medical care can treat most of the symptoms.
COVID-19 is caused by a virus. Antibiotics do not work on viruses.
Some reports suggest certain drugs, including hydroxychloroquine, can be used to treat COVID-19. The Therapeutic Goods Administration has not approved hydroxychloroquine, or any other drug, for treating COVID-19, in Australia
We are supporting research to find effective treatments for the virus. There is no approved vaccine for COVID-19, but global efforts to develop a vaccine continue.
See our answers to frequently asked questions about COVID-19.
For what we are doing to limit the spread of COVID-19, go to Government response to the outbreak.